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“Spit Back with Bullets!”
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30 Seiten
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
This article examines changing methods and intentions of pogrom violence in late Imperial Russia.... mehr
“Spit Back with Bullets!”
This article examines changing methods and intentions of pogrom violence in late Imperial Russia. Early pogroms in the 1880s were primarily an attempt to install feelings of Jewish inferiority, by humiliating them. This emotional characteristic didnot go unnoticed by the Jews. From 1903, however, an influential segment of Russia’s Jews decided to counter the emotional message of pogrom violence with displays of Jewish pride and dignity. A new approach that was subsequently translated into a strategy of self-defense and deterrence. Although self-defense units were seen as threatening by the non-Jewish population, this method of deterrence was not always successful. Forestalling humiliation by instilling fear was unexpectedly complicated.