Memories of mass crime constitute parameters for universal ethics. Memories of the Holocaust account for this. A paradigmatic meaning has been attached to the extermination of the European Jews. By now other memories of mass crime demand public commemoration in order to gain recognition. Such pluralism of memories bears a considerable potential for conflict, especially when all suffering was caused by one historical event – the Second World War. Then, opposing constellations and competition of remembrance become apparent – not only between the political cultures of Western and Eastern Europe but also, and especially between European and colonial memories. Dan Diners’ essay discusses the problem of opposing memories of the Second World War and the Holocaust by terminology and historical background of remembrance. After assuring that “Auschwitz” stands for a break in civilisation, he reflects on preconditions of historical judgements and recognition of remembrance. Dan Diner predicts dramatic differences even oppositions between Western and non-European cultures – especially of Islamic background.